of Gold in California, by Gen. John Sutter
Capt. Sutter Describes the Early Discovery of Gold
Eyewitness to the Gold Discovery
Rush to the Gold Washings, From the California Star
Governor Masons Report on the Discovery of Gold
T. Sherman and the Gold Rush
Impact of the Gold Discovery, by Theo. H. Hittell
Discovery as Viewed in New York and London
Rush and Anti-Chinese Race Hatred
Museum Gold Rush Items
Gold Rush Chronology 1846 - 1849
Gold Rush Chronology 1850 - 1851
Gold Rush Chronology 1852 - 1854
Gold Rush Chronology 1855 - 1856
Gold Rush Chronology 1857 - 1861
Gold Rush Chronology 1862 - 1865
Day in the 1850s
Brannan Opens New Bank - 1857
History of the First Find
With the Names of Those Interested in the Discovery
By James S.
SALT LAKE CITY, Utah,
Jan. 24, 1894.
Just forty-six (46)
years ago to-day the great and memorable discovery of the California
gold was made at Capt. John A. Sutter and James W. Marshalls sawmill,
on American Fork River, California.
Now to give a clear conception
of that most notable event, we must go back to the time when the project
of building the mill was first conceived by Messrs. Sutter and Marshall,
which was on or near the 1st of June, 1847. But, for want of skilled labor,
the matter was delayed for a time, as the class of white men that was to
be hired could not be trusted so as to justify a man in the undertaking
of an enterprise of such importance as building a gristmill, which he already
had under contemplation, and a sawmill forty miles away, in an Indian country;
and again, the unsettled condition of the country as it was, so soon after
the war, and considering the scarcity of money, caused Mr. Sutter to hesitate
until a detachment of 150 men of the Mormon Battalion came up, August 26,
and camped on the American Fork River about two miles from Sutters Fort.
After they had a short consultation it was decided that about one hundred
of the party would remain over till the next year, and seek employment
as best they could. Accordingly, a committee was appointed to wait upon
Mr. Sutter, to learn from him what the prospect for employment was. The
committee informed Mr. Sutter that we had carpenters, blacksmiths, wheelwrights,
millwrights, farmers and common laborers, and that we should want horses,
cattle, and a general outfit for crossing the plains early the next summer,
and if we could not get all money, we could and would take a part of our
pay in the above mentioned stock and supplies. This proposition seemed
to meet with favor from the Captain, as he had an abundance of the above
mentioned property, and, if my memory is not at fault, he told the committee
to call again, or for the men to come in two or three days, and he would
speak further with them.
I understood then that in
two or three days he decided to construct the two mills above mentioned,
for the greatest obstacle that confronted him had been removed by the propositions
that our committee had made to him. I have not heard the foregoing statement
denied, therefore it is confirmed in my mind that had it not been for this
opportunity the sawmill at least would not have been built, nor the discovery
of gold been made at that time. The State of California would have waited
indefinitely to have been developed and to be christened the Golden
State, and the entrance to San Francisco Bay might never have received
the title of the Golden Gate.
Quite a number, say from
forty to sixty of us, called on Mr. Sutter between August 29th and September
5th. Some were employed to work on the gristmill, others took contracts
on the mill race of that mill, the race was seven or eight miles long and
was also designed for irrigation.
Alexander Stephens, Henry
W. Bigler, James Berger, William Johnson, Azariah Smith, James S. Brown,
and Israel Evans, were hired to follow; James W. Marshall (Mr. Sutters
partner), mill-wright. Peter L. Wimmer and family and William Scott
had preceded us two or three days. I think that they had only two wagons
loaded with tools and provisions; the teams were oxen and were driven by
two of Mr. Sutters tame or civilized Indians.
It must have been between
the 8th and 11th when we came up to the party who had already commenced
the erection of a rough cabin, half a mile from the spot or site that Marshall
had selected some time before for the mill.
Now the work commenced in
earnest; the cabin was pushed, and a second room put on in true frontier
style. Some finished up the cabin, others worked at getting out timbers
and preparing for the erection of the mill. The site chosen for the mill
was at a point where the river made considerable of a bend, and just in
the bank of what appeared to be the old bed of the river, which was lowered
to carry the water from the mill.
Sometime between the 15th
and 20th of January the mill was started up, and it was found that it had
been set too low and the race would not carry off the water, but that it
would drown or kill the flutter wheel. To avoid this difficulty several
new pieces of timber had to be got out, and as there was found suitable
timber within ten or fifteen rods from where the tail race entered the
river, all hands were set to work getting out the timber at that place.
It had been customary to
hoist the gates of the force bay when we quit work in the evening, letting
the water through the race to wash away the loosened sand and gravel, then
close them down early in the morning, and a gang of Digger Indians had
been employed to dig and cast out the cable rock, such as was not moved
by the water.
I, having picked up sufficient
of the Indian dialect to direct the Indians in that labor, was set to look
after that work, and as all hands were getting out timber so near the race,
I had stepped away from them and was with the white men when Mr. Marshall
came down to look after the work in general. Having talked a few moments,
he stepped away to where the race entered the river. He discovered a bed
of rock that had been exposed to view by the water the night before; the
rock that was in sight was in the bottom of the race and was from three
to six feet wide and fifteen to twenty feet long. It appeared to be granite,
but so soft that it might be scaled up with a pick, yet too solid to be
carried away by the water.
I, being an all-around
worker, sometimes called from one thing to another, and the Indians did
not require my whole attention, Mr. Marshall called me to come to him.
I went, and found him examining the bed rock. He said, This is a
curious rock, I am afraid that it will give us trouble, and as he
probed it a little further, he said, I believe that it contains minerals
of some kind, and I believe that there is gold in these hills. Said
I to him, What makes you think so? He said he had seen the
blossom of gold, and I asked what that was, and he told me that it was
the white quartz scattered over the hills. I, being no better informed,
asked what quartz was. He answered that it was the white flint-like
rock that was so plentiful on the hills. I told him that it was flint rock,
but he said no, that it was called quartz in some book that he had read,
and that it was an indication of gold. He then sent me to the cabin to
bring a pan so that we could wash some of the sand and gravel to see what
we could find. (It is well to say here that Alexander Stephens, H. W. Bigler,
James Berger, Azariah Smith, W. Johnson and the writer had built a cabin
near the site of the mill and were doing our own cooking, and it was to
this cabin I was sent.) On my return we washed some of the sand and gravel
and also some of the bed rock that we scaled up with a pick. As we had
no idea of the appearance of gold in its natural state, our search was
unsuccessful. Then he said, Well, we will hoist the gates and turn
in all the water that we can to-night, and tomorrow morning we will
shut it off and come down here, and I believe we will find gold or some
kind of mineral here.
As he was rather a notional
kind of man, I had but little thought of what he said; do not think I even
mentioned it to the other men. We each went our way and did not see each
other till the next morning. We in the cabin, at a very unusually early
hour, heard a pounding at the mill, and someone said, Who is that
pounding so early? Some one of the party looked out and said it was
Marshall shutting the gates of the fore bay down. This brought to my mind
what he had said the evening before about finding gold, and I said, Oh,
he is going to find a gold mine, this morning.
Nothing but a smile of derision
stole over the faces of the parties present. We ate our breakfast and went
to work. James Berger and myself went to the whipsaw, and the rest of the
men some eight or ten rods off from the mill. I was close to the mill and
saw pit, but was also close to the tail race where I could direct the Indians
that were there. This was January 24, 1848.
Just when we had got partly
to work, here came Mr. Marshall with his old wool hat in hand, and stopped
within six or eight yards of the saw pit, and exclaimed, Boys, I
have got her now. I, being the nearest to him, and having more curiosity
than the rest of the men, jumped from the pit and stepped to him, and on
looking in his hat discovered say ten or twelve pieces of small scales
of what proved to be gold. I picked up the largest piece, worth about fifty
cents, and tested it with my teeth, and as it did not give, I held it aloft
and exclaimed, gold, boys, gold! At that they all dropped their
tools and gathered around Mr. Marshall. Now, having made the first test
and proclamation of that very important fact, I stepped to the workbench
and put it to the second with the hammer. While doing that it occurred
to me that while in the Mormon Battalion in Mexico, we came to some timber
called manzanita. Our guides and interpreters said that wood was what the
Mexicans smelted their gold and silver ores with. It is a hard wood and
makes a very hot fire and also lasts a long time. Remembering that we had
left a very hot bed of these coals in the fireplace of the cabin, I hurried
off and made the third test by placing it upon the point of an old shovel
blade, and then inserted it in among the coals, and blew the coals until
I was blind for the moment, in trying to burn or melt the particles; and
although it was plated almost as thin as a sheet of note paper, the heat
did not change its appearance in the least. I remembered hearing that gold
could not be burned up, so I arose from this third test confident that
it was gold. Then running out to the party who were grouped together, made
the second proclamation, saying, gold! gold!
At this juncture all was
excitement, and all repaired to the lower end of the tail race, where we
found from three to six inches of water flowing over the bed of rock, in
which there were crevices and little pockets, over which the water rippled
in the glare of the sunlight as it shone over the mountain peaks. James
Berger was the first man to spy a scale of the metal. He stooped to pick
it up, but found some difficulty in getting hold of it as his fingers would
blur the water, though he finally succeeded. The next man to find a piece
was H. W. Bigler; he used his jackknife, getting it on the point of the
blade, then, getting his forefinger over it, placed it in his left hand.
And as we soon learned how to look for it, as it glittered under the water
and in the rays of the sun, we were all rewarded with a few scales. Each
put his mite into a small vial that was provided by Marshall, and we made
him the custodian. We repeated our visits for three or four mornings to
the tail race, each time collecting some more of the precious metal, until
we had gathered somewhere between three and four ounces.
The next move was to step
and stake off two quarter sections beginning at the mill, one running down
the river and the other up. Then we cut and hauled logs and laid the foundation
of a cabin on each of them; one was for Sutter, the other for Marshall.
Now, this matter being finished, Mr. Marshall was prepared to dictate terms
to us, for every tool and all the provisions in that part of the country
belonged to Capt. Sutter and Mr. Marshall, and they had full control, and
we were depending on the completion of the mill for our pay. He said if
we would stay by him until the mill was completed and well stocked with
logs, he would supply us with provisions and tools and the first right
to work on their gold claims.
So we all agreed to his
proposition, and also that we would not disclose our secret of the gold
discovery until we learned more about it and had made good our claims.
Not having the remotest idea of its extent, we pushed the mill as rapidly
as possible, for as yet we had not received one dollars pay for our four
There came a rainy day,
and it was too wet to work; H. W. Bigler thought it a good day to hunt
ducks, so he got on an old coat, and was gone all day. When he returned,
we said, Where are your ducks? He said, Wait awhile,
I will show you; I have got them all right. Finally he drew an old
cotton handkerchief from his pocket, in a corner of which he had at least
half an ounce of gold tied up. For a while all were excited, and he was
asked a great many questions like the following: Did you find it
on Sutters claim along the river? How far is it from here?
All in one place? Is there any more? How
did you get it, you had no pick nor shovel? Can you find the
place again? He said that he had found it down below Sutters claim,
along the river where the bed rock crops out along the bank, and in little
rills that come down the hills to the river, and everywhere that he found
the bed rock cropping out. Then you found it in more than one place?Yes,
more than a dozen. It was now proposed that we keep this discovery
a secret, as the discovery in the race had been kept. So the mill work
was pushed with vigor to completion. But in the meantime Marshall felt
it had become his duty to inform his partner of the discovery. Accordingly
he wrote a letter stating the facts, and sent me out to find a strange
Indian that would take it to Capt. Sutter, fearing that if he sent it by
someone that was acquainted with the facts, the secret might leak out.
Just about this time W. Johnson found that he had some urgent business
below and he must go, and he did; he went to the gristmill and along the
camps on that mill race. And somehow or other the bag came untied and our
old cat and all the kittens ran out, and to the camps they went, until
everybody heard them. But, like all great truths, people were slow to believe
However, Sidney Willis and
Wilford Hudson began to feel that they would like a little venison, and
with that for an excuse took their guns and set out on foot, having been
assured that by following up the river they would come to the sawmill,
which they succeeded in doing the first day. I think that it was only
miles distant. I think that they stayed one day and two nights with us,
then after a thorough examination of the bed rock, sand and gravel, and
the surroundings, they gathered a few specimens, among which was one nugget
worth about five dollars, the largest by odds that had been discovered
up to that time.
As they passed down on their
way home they discovered a small ravine or creek in which there was some
of the same kind of bed rock that they had seen at the mill race, and by
picking around in the sand and gravel they discovered quite a rich prospect
that was just opposite what was afterwards called Mormon Island, about
twelve or fifteen miles above the gristmill and about the same distance
below the sawmill. Then they returned to the mill and told their story
and showed the specimens to the boys. Then some went to Sutters Fort,
to a little grocery store kept by a Mormon by the name of Smith, that came
around by the ship Brooklyn. The story of the find was told
to him and specimens exhibited to him, and he wrote to Saml. Brannan, who
was publishing a paper in San Francisco at that time, and from that press
the news went forth to the world. Brannan was a Mormon elder, and the press
was owned by a company of Mormons that had come from New York around Cape
Horn and were presided over by S. Brannan.
Having explained briefly
the find and proclamation, we will return to the mill race, while from
100 to 150 Mormons flocked to Mormon Island, and then people from every
part of the States followed, and the search for gold was commenced in earnest.
With jack, butcher, and table knives the search was made in the crevices,
after stripping the soil from the bed rock with pick and shovel. Next,
we conceived the idea of washing the sand and small gravel in time pans,
but these were scarce and hard to get hold of. Alexander Stephens dug out
a trough, leaving the bottom round like a log. Filling that with sand and
gravel that we scraped off the bed rock, he would shake it, having arranged
it so as to pour or run water in on the gravel; finally he commenced to
rock the trough, which led to the idea of a rocker, which caused the gold
to settle at the bottom, and he had it arranged on an incline so that it
would naturally not only work to the bottom, but to the lower end of the
trough, then at short intervals he would turn it into a tub of water, and
at night it would be cleaned and weighed on a pair of wooden scales that
he also made, using silver coins for weights, counting the silver dollar
equal to one ounce of gold. The rocker above mentioned led to the renowned
gold rocker; I am under the impression that Stephens did make the first
rocker ever used in California. We made buckskin pouches or wallets to
carry the gold in; it was not dust, nor yet nuggets, but small scales.
The next and last process
that we used in gathering was to spread a sheet on the sand beach of the
river, placing some big rocks on the corners and sides to keep it well
stretched, then fill the rich dirt on the upper edge, then throw water
on to wash the dirt down in the river, leaving the gold on the sheet, occasionally
taking up the sheet and dipping it in a tub of water, thus washing the
gold off the sheet into the tub, and at night clean up our days work,
averaging from $12 to $15 per hand. Our best paying dirt was carried on
our shoulders from Dry Gulch all the way from fifteen to sixty rods, to
where we could find water to wash it with.
In the latter part of June,
1848, we left the gold fields of California to meet our fathers, mothers,
brothers and sisters, and our dear friends in what was called the Great
American Desert, now called Utah Territory.
To Sutters capital and
enterprise and Marshalls shrewd sagacity has been given the credit of
the great gold discovery of California. The facts are that James W. Marshall
discovered the first color, and in less than an hour six Mormons found
color as well, and in less than six weeks had discovered it in hundreds
of places that Mr. Marshall had never seen, the most notable of which was
Mormon Island, to where the first rush was made, and from where the news
was spread to the uttermost bounds of the everlasting hills and to all
the nations of the earth.
As to Sutters enterprise
and capital, he did furnish the Graham flour and mutton, wheat and peas,
black coffee and brown sugar, teams and tools, while we, the members of
the Mormon Battalion, did do the hard labor that discovered the metal,
and it is also true that we were in Sutters employ at that date, and that
we did not get paid for our labor.
I worked 100 days for the
firm, and never received one farthing for it. I heard a number of other
men say that they never got their pay. Then it was our labor that developed
the find, and not theirs, for many of them were never paid; and when we
went for a settlement we were told by Capt. Sutter that he could not settle
with us for his bookkeeper had gone to the mines and his books were not
posted. He cursed Marshall and the mines, and declared that he was a ruined
man, that the discovery was his ruin, for it had drawn off his laborers
and left everything to go to rack, and he was being robbed.
I do not wish it to be understood
that I charge them with being dishonorable, for I do not, but I charge
it to the general confusion of the country. I think they were honorable
men in a business way. But the facts are they were perfectly overrun with
all classes of people, and confused, so that the people took advantage
of them, and their business affairs were undermined, and there was a general
collapse of every industry and business. The cry was gold! gold!
more gold! away for the gold fields! Every other enterprise was sacrificed
at the sight of gold.
With all due respect to
Capt. John A. Sutter and James W. Marshall, to whom the world has given
the credit of the great find, I do believe if they had been taken out and
shot to death the day of the discovery they would have suffered less, and
would have met their Maker just as pure, if not more honored in this world,
than to have lived and endured what they did.
As far as I am concerned,
I say peace to their remains, for on this earth they have been greatly
wronged, if I have read their history correctly. Like a lynching scrape
where there is an outburst of the people, it is very difficult to find
those who are responsible for the crime; so with the wrongs done these
men, it seemed as if the whole country or people picked upon them.
The above has been written
from memory, as it has been indelibly impressed upon the mind of the writer
by the greatness of the results flowing therefrom, and the numerous inquiries
that have been made of him, which have been answered by reciting it so
repeatedlyif not all at once, it has been at different timesso
that after reading and revising it, I can testify from the best of my knowledge,
it is strictly correct.
The following are some extracts
from letters received, showing the relation of the writer to the gold discovery
and incidents of close connection to the history as given in this work:
ST. GEORGE, Utah,
Dec. 20th, 1885.
DEAR BROTHER JAMES:I
have just received a letter from John S. Hittell, San Francisco, Cal.,
an entire stranger to me. He wishes to get all the information he can in
relation to the discovery of gold at Sutter & Marshalls sawmill, in
1848, and if any of the mill hands knew of a man by the name of Humphrey,
who claims to have been the first person who introduced the Rocker there
and taught the mill hands how to wash gold. I have answered his letter,
saying there may have been a man there by that name, but as for introducing
a Rocker and showing us how to wash the Platter was something I have no
knowledge about. The tin pan was used, and they were scarce. A wooden tray,
made by Alex. Stephens to knead dough in, was used by me, and as for Rockers,
up to the time we left, in 48, there was none that I saw or heard of at
Marshalls mill, or anywhere else in Cal. And again, he says he wants the
exact date of the discovery. I have told him that my journal has the discovery
on the afternoon of January 24th, 1848, and he says he has corroborative
evidence that such was the fact, instead of the 19th of January, as Marshall
has it in his history, and he wishes to establish that factthat
Marshall was mistaken in his dateand Mr. Hittell wants the address
of yourself, E. Stephen, and others who may have been present at the sawmill
when the precious metal was discovered. I shall, to-day, write and
send him your address, as he wishes to write to you, also to Stephens,
but I have not his address. Please tell me where Alex. lives by giving
me his post office address. I think I will tell Hittell he can write to
Alex. and send it to your address or care, and you will forward it to him.
Can you give me Bergers and Azariah Smiths post office address? I write
this that you may understand more fully, should you receive a letter from
Mr. Hittell. He has written to me two letters, and it appears he is a person
of prominence, is an author, and is writing the History of Cal. and its
HENRY W. BIGLER.
1025 HYDE STREET, SAN FRANCISCO,
Dec. 26, 1885.
JAMES S. BROWN,
DEAR SIR: I mail
to you to-day a copy of an address delivered by me before the Pioneer
Society, of this city, in reference to the gold discovery. I have recently
heard from Henry W. Bigler that you are living and are in Salt Lake City,
and as I am in want of some information, I write to you.
Do you know on what day
gold was discovered at Coloma?
Do you know when the first
rocker was used in gold mining, at or near Coloma?
Do you know who used it?
Do you know whether anyone
at Coloma, except H. W. Bigler, kept a diary about the time of the gold
What is the post office
address of Alexander Stephens? Could he probably tell me anything more
than you can tell me?
Any corrections of my statements
in the pamphlet, or remarks upon them, will be welcome.
I inclose an envelope for
your reply if you favor me with one.
JOHN S. HITTELL.
THE WORKS OF
HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT
THE HISTORY COMPANY,
No. 607 Market Street,
N. J. STONE, MANAGER.
Dec. 20, 1886.
MR. JAMES S. BROWN,
Salt Lake City, Utah.
DEAR SIR: We have
received and read with very great interest some notes of yourself given
to Mr. L. H. Nichols, and especially that part of your experience in which
you tell of the discovery of gold in California. The information you have
given is important. We are not aware at this moment whether Mr. Bancroft
has all his data bearing upon the point that you bring out, or not; we
regret that we had not found you out earlier, as to enable us to present
your notes to Mr. Bancroft before his text had gone on so far, but even
to-day what you contribute to his material on the gold discovery will
be of greater or less value, and we shall forward it to his library at
You have had a very unusual
and evidently a very useful experience, altogetherone that is
pleasant to remember, and one in which a man at your time of life can well
feel satisfaction. Your missionary work among the Indians, whose language
you seem to have a most remarkable facility for acquiring, is a piece of
history itself, and it would seem that with the information about the language,
habits, customs, and domestic relations of the number of tribes that you
have gone among in the way you have, would make a most interesting volume
alone. We very much appreciate your kindness in giving these items to Mr.
Nichols, and you may accept from us the kindest acknowledgment from the
We are gratified to know
that Mr. Nicholas has had a chance to meet you and know you, and we sincerely
trust that, as he promises us, you will take hold and assist him in promoting
his work among your good people.
We remain, dear sir,
THE HISTORY COMPANY,
D. S. SESSIONS.
While much more might be
said quite as correct, I have deemed this account sufficient for the ordinary
inquiring mind, therefore I respectfully submit it to be filed away as
a true history, feeling that it is only just to give honor to whom honor
Signed, JAMES S. BROWN,
31 North, 1st West Street,
Salt Lake City, Utah.
We, the undersigned, know
the foregoing to be a true and correct statement of the first discovery
of gold in California:
Woods Cross, Davis County, Utah.
GEORGE W. BOYD,
Salt Lake City.
H. D. MERRILL,
427 N. 2d W., Salt Lake City.
WILLIAM S. MUIR,
Woods Cross, Davis County, Utah.
Lehi, Utah County, Utah.
BUT FOUR OF
Herald, Nov. 26,
COMPANIONS OF MARSHALL
WHEN HE DISCOVERED GOLD
Three of These Aged Pioneers Live In Utah and May Attend the Golden Jubilee
Four men, their bodies bent
and faces furrowed by the cares of life and passing time, riding before
the society of California Pioneers, will be one of the most interesting,
if not striking, features of the Golden Jubilee procession, to be held
in this city on Jan. 24. These old men, Henry W. Bigler, James S. Brown,
Azariah Smith and William J. Johnston, are the sole surviving companions
of Marshall, and were with him when he discovered the shining bit of gold
at Coloma. They now live in distant lands, and far from one another, but
they will be brought together on the day of the jubilee, perhaps for the
Some time ago Mr. Hittell,
pioneer, author and historian, wrote to Mr. Bigler in an endeavor to ascertain
the whereabouts and condition of health of his companions. The following
answer, written in a hand that portrayed the writers age and feeble condition,
St. George, Utah,
Oct. 9, 1897.
Dear Mr. Hittell.Yours of the 3rd inst.
to hand, in which I learn that the society of California Pioneers is considering
the project of celebrating, the 24th of January next, the
of the discovery of gold at Coloma.
You wish me to give
you a list of the survivors, with their precise names, postoffice address
and any information I have in regard to their health and strength.
James S. Brown. I
met him at our great Jubilee in Salt Lake City last July. He was in his
usual health, quite lively and talkative as ever. His address is 31 North
First West street, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Azariah Smith a few
years ago was living in Manti, Sanpete county, Utah. I have not heard of
his death, nor of his leaving that place. At last accounts his health was
pretty good, though he was at time afflicted with fits.
William J. Johnston.
His address at last accounts was Ramah, Valencia county, New Mexico. His
health was good then.
My comrades who were
with Marshall at the time he found the gold at Coloma are all dead, so
far as I know, except myself and the names I have just mentioned. My health
is pretty good for a person of my age, as I am in my 83d year.
My appetite is good,
and people say I hold my age splendidly, and my walk is brisk, though I
have to use a cane to steady myself, as I am so light-headed and liable
to fall. I am pleased to hear of the move about to be made to celebrate
the 24th of January, 1848, and hope you will have a nice time, and it would
please me to witness and to be a partaker in the grand festivity on that
Any information I
may have that you would like to know you only have to write and it will
be a pleasing task for me to give it if I can.
HENRY W. BIGLER.
The pioneers are confident
that all will accept the invitation, and they look forward for a jolly
reunion on their part.
From: California Gold : an Authentic History of the
First Find : with the Names of those Interested in the Discovery
published by the author, James S. Brown.
Oakland, Calif. : Pacific Press Pub. Co., 1894.
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